Status is all.

Facts do not exist. Status exists.

Latest “news” item via New Superstitionist:

We have ignition! An analysis has confirmed that an experiment conducted in 2021 created a fusion reaction energetic enough to be self-sustaining, which brings it one step closer to being useful as a source of energy. The fusion ignition took place on 8 August 2021 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s National Ignition Facility (NIF) in California, but NIF researchers haven’t been able to reproduce this landmark achievement since. They have spent the past year analysing the experimental conditions that got them to ignition to determine how to achieve it again.

Remember the earlier cold fusion experiments by real scientists in Utah, who weren’t funded by Deepstate? They had ‘ignition’, a self-sustaining reaction in a small easy-to-build reactor.   They are PSEUDOSCIENTISTS because they don’t have STATUS.

Now the Deep Deepstate Livermore outfit has achieved one possible ‘ignition’ in their vast hard-to-build magnetic hot fusion reactor. They were unable to make it happen again. (Remember “reproducibility”?) They are SCIENTISTS because they have STATUS.

Ask and ye shall…

Previous item about AI and creativity made me wonder what AI would do when instructed to draw an old car. Would it come out hopelessly weird like a ’62 Dodge, or would it be a statistical average of all old cars, like the generic advertising cars?


Ian Fischer has made a movie solely by instructing AI to make a series of frames. He included a screenshot of the commands given to the AI.

The first car is “whimsical blue stationwagon”.

My initial thought is a cross between a Lloyd Kombi and a Mini panel van. The googleable pix of both are often blue and white.

Googling “whimsical blue stationwagon” doesn’t lead directly to these two, BUT: Both of these have been featured recently in Curbside Classic without the word “whimsical”. One of the refs including “whimsical” is this Fiat 500 panel van at Curbside Classic.

= = = = =

The second car is “yellow lamborghini”.

Literal, so no logic or stats needed.

The AI is remarkably smart in some ways. It recognizes that the animals need to be controlling the cars, so the zebra is controlling by chin and the giraffe seems to have his hoof on the wheel. It also does a good job of In and Out. A 3d rendering engine knows how to put A behind B when A is farther from the camera; but the AI has to orient the bodies properly to let the rendering work properly. In the first Lambo pic the giraffe’s head is closer to the camera, so it can be seen in front of the roof.

AI is not so smart in other ways. It clearly doesn’t understand how doors work.

1906 reprint

Linked this in previous item. It’s worth a reprint.

= = = = = START REPRINT:

Looking for old info on coherers, ran into a US Census publication from the magic year of 1906. The Census bureau wrote a splendidly informative article on the present condition of electricity and electronics, getting everything right and describing everything with crystal clarity. As expected, the publication also included lots of tables and maps of employment, sales, etc.

Another section described an industry I’d never heard of!

The Shoddy Industry.

There is, perhaps, no article produced in manufacture, no article used in manufacture, and no article in common use, that bears a reputation more undeserved than does shoddy. Its very name is a synonym for pretense and fraud. To the popular mind goods containing shoddy are not merely destitute of wearing quality, but are suggestive of the unwholesome secondhand clothing shop, and inspire one with apprehension lest the fabric should communicate loathsome disease to the wearer of apparel in which there is this substance of ill repute. All this is unwarranted by the facts, as all are aware who understand the shoddy process, the method of making use of shoddy, and the benefits which the use of it confers upon the user. It is not the case, as is too commonly supposed, that a garment — or the cloth which is made into a garment — is or can be composed wholly of shoddy. New wool or animal hair is always the basis of the yarn and a certain amount of shoddy is mixed with it on the card.

Substance of ill repute is a brilliant phrase for an important insight. Our entire nation is now devoted to wiping out substances of ill repute. Witch powders and the witches who spread witch powders.

Now we only know the ill repute of Shoddy, and never realize we’re insulting a whole branch of industry that employed ordinary people making useful products in an EFFICIENT way, RECYCLING resources that otherwise would have been trashed.

In 1906 government experts were engaged in telling the truth CLEARLY, and more importantly they saw their job as DEFENDING honest productive work. They provided VALUABLE INFORMATION in the sense that you could LEARN SOMETHING NEW AND USEFUL by reading their articles.

Now government experts tell nothing but vicious lies, and they see their job as DESTROYING honest work and STEALING honest labor and KILLING honest workers. Experts provide negative information. When you read the spewings of experts, real data is RIPPED out of your brain and replaced by demonic monsters.

= = = = =

Credit footnote: The section on electricity was written by Expert Special Agent Commerford Martin, and Shoddy was written by Expert Special Agent Edward Stanwood.

= = = = = END REPRINT.

Note that Martin and Stanwood had the word Expert in their titles, and the word was appropriate and honest in 1906.

Latest Kirn quibble

Kirn’s latest pithy point:

We need a few experts on the history of experts. Such a figure could estimate their average accuracy. My guess is that it hovers between 1 and 2 per cent. If it were any higher, we would not have needed new ones every few years.

This is a beautiful observation about the current meaning of ‘Expert’, but the historical aspect is conflated.

Everyone who has performed a job or task for a long time is an expert in the job or task. Real expertise is a collection of motion and sense sequences in the cerebellum. If we haven’t been ruined by mind-smashing media, we can judge facts and actions in our area of expertise ACCURATELY. We can compare the described skill with our skill and record the deltas. When we hear an official or media ‘Expert’ speaking in our area, we can instantly tell that the official ‘Expert’ is perfectly wrong. This is an absolute universal since 1946.

The same goes for risk assessment. We can judge the risks of actions and things within our area ACCURATELY unless we’ve been ruined by media.

The monsters currently described as ‘Experts’ (especially ‘Scientists’) are not experts at all. They are not describing the part of reality they know best. They believe what their paycheck believes and say what their paycheck says. Attempting to relate their verbal poison to reality is a category error. Their verbal output serves as reinforcement for utterly insane and murderous commands given by the demonic rulers.

Reality is totally disjunct from the output of demons. Attempting to compare a MURDEROUS COMMAND with a STATEMENT OF FACT is impossible and meaningless.

= = = = =

The history of official expertise is more complicated. In some times and places the only audible authority was a hard-wired loudspeaker for demonic commands. In earlier centuries these loudspeakers were called priests. Starting in 1700 the murdersquawkers were called Philosophers and Economists. Starting in 1789, some regimes called the loudspeakers ‘Scientists’. Since 1946 we have been in such a regime.

This situation is fairly new. As I’ve noted too often, before 1946 our government-paid scientists were generally real experts, describing reality in a careful and humble and non-authoritarian way.

Some fishy rambling on AI

Creativity can be measured commercially. A new product gains profit when it serves some people better than an existing product. Duane Jones emphasized the need to find your niche and defend it. An older product generally broadens and simplifies to be halfway pleasing to a broad range of cultures and places and personalities, which leaves room for a new multi-featured product to satisfy one group deeply.

The Rambler is the perfect example. The big three had simplified and lost variety in the mid-50s. All of their products had the same size and power and weight and features, losing many of the unique gimmicks and technologies of the ’30s.

Mason and Romney recognized, as Duane Jones did, that women are the deciders. The universal standard car was too big and powerful for most women. The big three were selling to young men who wanted speed and length to gain status with women, or at least to imagine that they were gaining status. This worked fairly well for the young men, but it was impractical for married women.

Mason’s creative insight was rewarded by married women, and the Rambler beat Plymouth for several years until the big three finally figured out what was happening.

= = = = =

In general, measurable creativity depends on a selector or editor who KNOWS what the customers want, and SELECTS the best match from a variety of designs.

Constant: Designers turn out a wide variety of shapes and sizes and colors and texts. A commercially viable design for our audience is always AVAILABLE from this noisy source.

Variable: Resonating with the chosen audience is a feedback process of gradual iterative tuning, and it takes a refined ear to sense when the resonance is just right. Good selectors can hit the right note with very little iteration. Bad managers don’t even know that tuning is necessary.

At the moment AI is an extremely noisy source. Janelle Shane at AI Weirdness has been trying it out to generate product ideas. Most of these names and pictures are blurred or jumbled mixtures of existing products, like the generic cars that appear in ads for gasoline or accessories. Some are completely weird and incomprehensible, like a ’62 Dodge.

= = = = =

AI’s verbal creativity is more convincing. From as usual:

What Does Wreckfish Taste Like?

Wreckfish is a type of seafood that is often found in the oceans. The seafood is made up of a small, white fish that has been hit by a ship and then squished. The fish is then cooked until it is very tender.

This is totally logical within its own universe, and a genuinely creative extension of logic. When you try to resonate it with the real universe it fails.

First, water isn’t like land. A rabbit can be squished by a car but a rabbit-sized fish can’t be squished by a ship. The bow wave pushes fish aside. A whale can be squished by a ship because it’s too large to push aside.

The non-squishing of ordinary fish is not googleable because it doesn’t happen.

Google doesn’t include news reports of things that don’t happen. (Admittedly political “news” consists SOLELY of things that can’t possibly happen, but that’s a different range of information.)

Second, the actual wreckfish is a large bass, and it was named because it liked to use submerged shipwrecks as home territory.

The first piece of info requires muscle sense. The second piece was googled easily.

The Cookingflavr AI can access Wikipedia much faster, but it didn’t recognize the land vs water difference because it hasn’t played in the bathtub or waded in a creek.

= = = = =

Could an AI manager select the most likely resonance between the chosen audience and its wide range of created varieties? Here’s where doesn’t happen comes into play. The new and resonant product doesn’t have any ad-click responses to measure statistically because it hasn’t happened yet.

Done with Substack

I had already passed through the point of not much fun, realizing that I enjoy writing more than reading. The facts and insights from various writers are not Shannon information. For the ‘cancelled’ elites like Dan Rather and Bari Weiss, Substack is just a money-making  rest stop on their way back to the Real Establishment.

Yesterday one of my subscribed writers singled out my comment for mockery.

Okay. That’s all. Done. I can get contempt for free, don’t need to pay for it. Unsubscribed everything.

A similar sequence happened last year with Quora. I had gradually reached the asymptote of not much fun, and then suddenly crossed over into negative fun.

In both cases the negative fun coincided with a management decision to supersize the superstars and ignore the independents.

Might be on the right track

Most research on human vs chimp misses the point. Most research focuses on physical differences like skull shape and jaw shape to explain why humans speak and apes don’t. Feedback ‘factors out’ such differences. Within modern humans there are similarly large differences in size and shape of bones, and we all speak.

Here’s a physical difference that seems much more plausible. Most other primates have an extra flap of tissue on the edge of the vocal fold, which sometimes vibrates in resonance with the fold itself and sometimes vibrates with its own unrelated resonance.

Human speech production obeys the same acoustic principles as vocal production in other animals but has distinctive features: A stable vocal source is filtered by rapidly changing formant frequencies. To understand speech evolution, we examined a wide range of primates, combining observations of phonation with mathematical modeling. We found that source stability relies upon simplifications in laryngeal anatomy, specifically the loss of air sacs and vocal membranes. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of vocal membranes allows human speech to mostly avoid the spontaneous nonlinear phenomena and acoustic chaos common in other primate vocalizations. This loss allows our larynx to produce stable, harmonic-rich phonation, ideally highlighting formant changes that convey most phonetic information. Paradoxically, the increased complexity of human spoken language thus followed simplification of our laryngeal anatomy.

This explanation focuses on the feedback control of SALIENT formants. SALIENT is the key. When the larynx itself is producing a set of frequencies that are varying randomly in their relative phase, the ear can’t reliably spot the CHANGES in formants that signal a change in phonemic vowels and consonants.

Decreasing complexity is how innovation works, in biology and technology and language. The first creation is hugely complex, with all possible features available. As it goes into production, then expands into different situations and markets and cultures, it loses features.

For robber barons it’s a good thing

The videogaming industry is turning against the whole Web3 shit. VR headsets, blockchain “trading”, the NFT fraud. Minecraft, the biggest and oldest company, which is owned by Microsoft, recently banned the whole mess. Most corporations will stick with The Current Thing even when it repels their customers and employees, because most corporations don’t want customers or employees.   Most corporations have either doubled down on NFT shit or “temporarily paused for re-evaluation”.  Minecraft said a firm harsh NO.   We won’t do it and we won’t allow it.

The worst example of abuse is Axie Infinity, which runs a click-farming operation. Click-farming is fraudulent on both ends. (1) It deceives advertisers into thinking that their ads are getting vastly more clicks. Incidentally, the old boxtop premiums automatically prevented this type of fraud. (2) Clickfarming, like all offshoring, is colonial oppression. It takes advantage of a hidden difference in exchange rate to underpay the foreign workers and totally disemploy domestic workers.

= = = = =

The podcasters at Blockworks Macro are solidly in favor of all Web3 shit. I’ve started the video when the interviewer asks: What’s the advantage of Web3 in gaming? The expert answers in detail, using Axie as a SHINING example of the best advantage.

1. Blockchain “makes a gray market less gray”. In other words, it legitimizes fraud and oppression, which is a GOOD THING in her view.

2. NFT enables more external speculation in the various premiums and rewards of gaming. Speculation is explicitly designed to enrich the rich and kill the poor, which is a GOOD THING in her view.

Just a rehash

I haven’t hit this theme lately. Time for a rehash.

Free speech is a fake issue.

Freedom is the goal of criminals and psychopaths. Normal people want to live a normal life and do useful work. Normal people want to be PROTECTED FROM THE FREEDOM-LOVING DEMONS.

Freedom really means I win, you die.

The high-status hippies were campaigning for freedom in the 60s. They meant FREEDOM FOR ME. I win, you die. Now that they’ve won, everyone else is dying.

When we reshape laws to make more freedom, we are making more room for criminals and demons, and leaving less space for ordinary people to live ordinary lives.

Libertarians are quite open about this formula.

Zero tax + zero regulation = Atlas wins, non-Atlas dies.

Instead of campaigning to grant more freedom “for everybody”, which really means FOR THE DEMONS, we should be trying to constrain the demons. See Sharia. See Fairness Doctrine.

Not unknown

LiveScience is all agog over a “newly discovered” aurora phenomenon.

As Dyer noted, the strange sky glow called STEVE was first described by citizen scientists and aurora hunters in northern Canada in 2017. STEVE is typically composed of an enormous ribbon of purplish light, which can hang in the sky for an hour or more, accompanied by a “picket fence” of green light that usually disappears within a few minutes.

It wasn’t newly discovered. The UFO fans in the ’50s saw and described this persistent bright streak. They didn’t call it a UFO, but speculated that it might have been a trail or emission from a UFO. Modern observers have figured out that ‘STEVE’ is basically a magnetic gust or microburst. The disc-type UFOs seemed to operate by manipulating the geomagnetic field in some way, so the correlation is more plausible than the ’50s folks knew.

(Some of these streaks might have been jet contrails, but passenger jets didn’t really take over the sky until the mid-60s, after these UFO discussions.)

The real independents

While we bicker and squabble about “free speech” vs Woke, on Twitter and Google and Facebook “versus” Gab and Parler and Substack, the real independents are blasting away inside the very same tech pipes and companies.

Who are they? Videogamers. The biggest games have about 200 million users each,  the same size as Twitter. And there’s no Woke in the game world. Perfect realism about males and females and status and sex, plenty of hard-hitting satire against the elite monsters. The satire takes the form of fables, as it did in Medieval 1.0 when insane rulers were censoring all literal communication. Videogames are active fables.

I had no fucking idea this was going on, until I started watching YongYea’s reviews and discussions of the industry. I understood the technical side of gaming, and had even contributed to its early stages; but without participating I was utterly ignorant of the content.

Look at YongYea’s latest review of a cult-building game.

Think you want to join a cult? Think you’re qualified to lead a cult? This training session will show you what’s involved on both sides, and maybe you’ll lose your appetite after the training.

Only one aspect of real cults is missing, at least as seen in the review: Blackmail.

Natural beauty correlates with theft.

Still thinking about Bell Labs. I visited there once ‘on business’ when I was working in the acoustics lab at Penn State. I feasted my eyes on The First Transistor, which wasn’t under lock and key. It was just casually displayed in a glass case in the main hall.

One of the Substackers wrote a hardass Then vs Now on California, focusing mainly on its natural beauty. Among the former good parts of Calif he included the vast technical innovation of Silicon Valley.

I’m not arguing with his main theme, but this is just historically wrong. Calif’s innovations are solely Show Biz, and Silicon Valley’s contribution to the world is solely Show Biz. Those “garage inventors” didn’t develop ANY new electronics. They were using and stealing and piggybacking on devices and computers developed in NEW JERSEY and UPSTATE NEW YORK. Edison was in West Orange, RCA was in Camden, Bell Labs was in Holmdel, IBM was in Binghamton, Xerox was in Rochester. Snowy unattractive places packed with REAL talent.

Silicon Valley created new BUSINESS MODELS based on the devices invented in New Jersey. The BUSINESS MODELS were copied from Hollywood. Create addictive content, set up a system to distribute it, charge for viewing and advertising. Pure California.

Reprinting a montage of NEWARK’S tech capability in 1957:

= = = = =

The parade of idiots marches on.

Residents of New Jersey’s largest city might find themselves showered in cash, as Newark Mayor Ras Baraka says the city will study a pilot program to provide universal basic income (UBI) to all residents whether or not they have a job.

“We believe in Universal Basic Income, especially in a time where studies have shown that families that have a crisis of just $400 in a month may experience a setback that may be difficult even impossible to recover from,” said Baraka during last week’s State of the City address at the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, noting that 1/3 of the city lives in poverty.

No no no no no no no, you fucking fucking fucking fucking idiots idiots idiots idiots.

UBI is just another way to KILL KILL KILL KILL KILL the poor, and you fucking well know it.

Newark used to have REAL PRODUCTIVE USEFUL USEFUL USEFUL JOBS JOBS JOBS for ordinary men, and a lot of hi-tech jobs for engineers as well.

Here’s just one tiny sample of one sector of industry, from the ads in a 1957 electronics buyers guide.

And the same was true in other sectors of industry.

Newark, Newark, Newark, Newark, Newark. Jobs, jobs, jobs, jobs, jobs.

You want numbers numbers numbers? Okay, here’s some data from the 1960 census.

Unemployment: Newark 4.5% vs national 5.1%.
Median income: Newark $7149 vs national $5660.
Newark 10% of pop under $3000 vs national 21%.
Newark 26% over $10000 vs national 15%.

Half the national poor end, twice the national rich end.

[Inflation since then is about 10, so just tack a 0 on those incomes for modern equivs.]

Newark may not have been a pretty place to live, but it was a good place to work.


NFT next?

Earlier today I mentioned the invention (or rather evolution) of the transistor in 1947. Bell Labs also developed most of speech science, including synthesis and recognition, and the C programming language, and microwave technology, and a million other useful devices and entire branches of science.

After the switch from profit to Share Value in 1980, Bell Labs was sold to Lucent and killed.  Later, Lucent devolved into something called Avaya, which accidentally returned to making just one Bell-like product: office extension phones and switchboards for call centers in India.

This afternoon Wolf reports on the further DEvolution of Avaya into a stock buyback vehicle.

This morning, the company confirmed the previously warned-about plunging revenues and a gigantic loss 2.4 times the size of its revenues. In addition, it disclosed an investigation into its financial reporting. And it warned, that it might not be able to pay off its bonds due in June 2023, though it had just raised $600 million by selling new debt in order to pay off these bonds, and that as a consequence of all of this, “there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.” So, this is a bankruptcy candidate. If it files for bankruptcy, it would be the second time.

The only thing missing is bitcoin and NFTs. I’m sure those will be the next step downward.

Whoops, I’m 5 years late. Avaya jumped into the bitcoin parade in 2017. There’s an NFT representing a song about Avaya, but so far I haven’t found an NFT offered by Avaya itself.

Reprint from 2016

In previous item I was bitching about modern podcasts failing to show the real balance of male and female in marriage. A similar change happened in drama and comedy, with a pivot point around 1960. Before the shift, spy shows and adventure shows had teams of men and women with everyone participating in appropriate ways. The men were punching and shooting, the women were spying and honeytrapping. The men expected the women to carry their end of the action, and the women wanted to do it. After 1960, all work became a Man’s World. “Don’t bother your pretty little head; everything is all right.”

Real people don’t say shit like that. Real people want to serve and work together, using skills appropriately.

Reprint from 2016:

= = = = = START REPRINT:

A complete series of ‘Secret Agent K-7’ recently arrived in The show, from the late ’30s, is above the norm for a low-budget syndicated 15-minute radio series. Characters are necessarily shallow but constantly plausible. They do and say things that real people say and do. Technology is also shallow but accurate. Guns and radio direction-finders and Thermite are described and used properly. There are no impossible secret weapons.

The show pulled me in with two superficial details: One of the female agents is named Rita, and there’s a lot of Morse.

After those surface items sucked me in, I realized that K-7 has one MAJOR shining virtue that separates it from all other spy stories. It’s written from a NON-BELLIGERENT viewpoint. The stories, summarized by the narrator’s brief sermon at the end of each episode, are designed to PRESERVE PEACE, not to DESTROY THE WORLD.

What do I mean by non-belligerent? A few of those little sermons:

(1) It is a known fact that in these times telephone lines are routinely tapped. Those who rule by force and intrigue have many secrets to guard, from their own people and from the world.

Precisely correct and stated generically. You can apply this to any country. Contrast with the modern USA STRONG narrative of tapping and hacking. We do not tap because we are Exceptional. All tapping and hacking is caused by RUSSIANAGGRESSION. We need to DESTROY RUSSIANAGGRESSION because RUSSIANAGGRESSION must be destroyed.

(2) The bombing of cities far behind the actual lines of battle will be the most horrible part of the next war, for innocent women and children will be the victims.

Again note the generality. This turned out to be a precisely true prediction, and the Allies did most of the civilian bombing. And the show’s writers were also correct in predicting that Thermite incendiary bombs would be the decisive factor. The A-bomb didn’t really do anything more than Thermite, and the A-bomb was NOT what drove Japan to surrender. Our actions in early 1945 indicated that we KNEW Japan would be done in July or August. How did we know? Because the entry of Russia had been SCHEDULED two years in advance. The Russian second front was the final persuader, and we knew it.

(3) The fact that food rearmament programs are equal in importance to military and naval programs may be surprising. Men and munitions are important, but without food, war cannot be waged. Nations have been starved out before, and it will happen again.

A rare focus on DEFENSIBLE SPACES and SELF-SUFFICIENCY. Contrast with the USA STRONG approach. We are fanatically busy DESTROYING our own reserves of food, petroleum, water, helium, productive industries, skills, and money. Bush The Son made it lethally clear that he wanted to run these wars purely on debt and dependence. No defense bonds sold to Americans, no expansion of defense industries that would give jobs to Americans, no stockpiling of food or anything else. Continue bombing our own dams to “save” the nine-toed grinklesnarb, continue bombing our own police to “save” the vulnerable gangsters. We must get all of our oil from Saudi and give all of our jobs to China while borrowing all of our money from China. Total vulnerability, total dependence. We must be fully starve-able and fully disarmed in every possible way, physical and emotional and mental.

(4) The smuggling of undesirable aliens has always been a problem for the great nations of the world. Today it has assumed major importance, since the undesirables who enter a country are often spies and saboteurs.

Well, we all know that Dreamers are NEVER undesirable. Only natives are Deplorable and Undesirable. Dreamers are physically incapable of committing terrorism or spying or sabotage because they are Dreamers.

(5) This one was in the dialog, not the ‘sermon’. K-7 is brought in by an old friend who runs a factory that builds engine parts. He is nearing bankruptcy because his production is being sabotaged, probably by foreign moles among his employees, and he can’t find the problem. He asks K-7 for help, and K-7 replies: “Your country is not engaged in war. Neither is the country buying your airplane parts. Both countries believe in peace. For that reason, as well as for the welfare of your workers, I will help you.” There’s a concise and complete statement of Populism. Don’t make war, improve the welfare of your OWN workers. This was a COMMON attitude in 1938 America. Now it’s forbidden.

Each of these little sermons would be

today. Literally unsayable, because the secrets must be guarded from our own people at all costs.

= = = = = END REPRINT.

Now those prophetic sermons are even more prophetic.  Especially #3.

No teams

Modern podcasters and writers are always unmarried when “on stage”. Males sometimes mention their kids but NEVER mention their wives (or more likely husbands). Females sometimes mention their kids but NEVER talk about their husbands (or more likely wives.)

The earlier form of podcast was nearly always a team effort, a chat between husband and wife. In the ’40s there were dozens of these 15-minute chats, national and local. Some couples were already famous, some became relatively famous by doing the chat. Most of these chats were partly scripted to insure the requisite number of product placements.

Occasionally they mentioned their kids, and even more rarely brought one of the kids into the program. For instance, here’s Mr and Mrs Adolphe Menjou discussing auto racing with their son, and realizing that his tastes were more sophisticated than they thought.

Modern chats, with the implication of sole responsibility, don’t provide a role model for full partnership in marriage.